The history

It is believed that King Zamorin ordered Land Lords to start the festival in Chinakkathoor in 18th Century.  It can be seen that the Horseplay indicates the significance of Zamorin Dynasty (AD 825-1766). The heritage of Mamankam reflects the glorious past in the Horseplay.


Mamankam. (Mahamagham/Jubily) used to be celebrated once in twelve years on Makam day.  In the ancient times Perumal kings were the authority of this gala.  After the departure of last Perumal, the leadership was taken by valluvanad King.  Till 12th century Valluvanad Kings were in-charge of this festival which was celebrated in Thirunavaya, the river bank of Perar.  King Zamorin of Kozhikkode conquered Valluvanad King (Valluvakkonathiri) and captured the leadership of Mamankam.  All local kings and lords consisting war troops could participate in this festival which would be celebrated for 28 days.  Mr. William Loagan, who was the Collector of British Malabar, says that the last Mamankam was held in 1743.  A suicide squad of Valluvanad consisting four elegant fighters could challenge Zamorin for a war.  Zamorin would sit in the War stand with the accompaniment of 40,000 Nair Troops.  Suicide squad belonging to the four families namely Chenthrattil Panicker, Verkkottil panicker, Puthumana Panicker &  Kolkkat Panicker who were the Nair chieftains would be ready to fight against Zamorin’s  troop of Mamankam courageous and radiant people of Valluvanad had to perform their undying thirst for freedom and satisfaction of making a rebellion against Zamorin.  They knew that they would not return to their families.  Thousands of ill-fated fighters  of Valluvnad had lost their lives during this festival.


Logan has summarized the Mamankam and the way of handling the people by Zamorin which continued from 12th century to 18th century in Malabar.  He has also quoted the words of  Mr.Hamilton (New Account Page 306-308) about the stark realities happened in the bygone era.  In the Horseplay of Chinakkathoor, the name of main horse is Zamorin (Pandaarakuthira).  They are controlling the war-like play of Horses.  It is seen that there is a Horse namely Kochi Raja participating in the Horseplay of Chinakkathoor.There were incessant battles between the Kings of Kerala from 12th century to 18th century.  But at any rate it may be noted that Zamorin was the entire authority of temple celebrations in Malabar and also in Kerala.


The Historian ‘Mr. Whiteway’ has mentioned about the friendly war between the troops of Kerala Kings (Jaathi Vyavasthithiyum Kerala Charithravum-Pk. Balakrishnan, page.14).  The war occurs in day light only.  There was no more distance between the places of troops.  The play starts after getting the signal of drum (Murasu).  The Kuthira Panthi(Place of Horse troops) asserts that the above narration of Mr. Whiteway is accurately maintained in Horseplay of Chinakkathoor.


RS stuart says that the war-like play was conducted in a stipulated place once in an year.  But there were no enmity continued in connection with this play.    It is absolutely followed in Chinakkathoor

Thazhekkavu Bhagavathy
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